This is an assignment my daughter completed to begin her goal journal. More »

Once a child has reached all language development milestones of early childhood SLP\\\'s should be aware of advance language development and how to help those struggling in middle and high school academics. More »


Goal Setting Rubric



Write your goals using MS Word. Text should be 12-point Times New Roman font.

  • Create a binder with loose-leaf paper and decorate the cover expressing your individuality
  • Using the following questions write the following:
  • Write three long-term goals > 1 year to complete
  • Write three short-term goals < 1 year to complete
  1. What is your goal?
  2. How will you achieve this goal? (Use specific examples and action words to explain)
  3. What is your time line for achieving this goal? (Hint: is this long-term or short-term goal)
  4. Whom will you rely on to assist with achieving this goal?
  5. What will you need from these people in order to reach your goal?
  6. What problem or challenge do you feel may be an obstacle in reaching this goal?


  • Remember: There is no wrong or right answers. This is an opportunity to express a well thought out plan to change your future.
  • It begins with setting goals.
  • This is the start of doing the right thing!
  • THINK change!

Using the provided diagram to brainstorm problems and solutions.

For example:

Problem: Lying

Solution 1 – 3: Brainstorm 3 possible solutions to this problem

Problems are inevitable part of life. Success and failure are best friends. Do not expect one without the other. To help you handle problems and failures appropriately preparation is key! Using #6 in the goal setting questions provide one graph for each.




What is the ideal diet for optimal brain function?

Answer by Anuj Agarwal:

A brain-healthy diet is one that encourages good blood flow to the brain, is rich in anti-oxidants, omega-3 fatty acids, have enough minerals like Vitamin C, E, B12 and folate and is low in fat and cholesterol. Like the heart, the brain needs the right balance of nutrients, including protein and sugar, to function well. A brain-healthy diet is most effective when combined with physical and mental activity and social interaction.

Here is a list of food, in order of importance, you might want to include in your daily diet for maintaining a healthy brain.

1. Dark skinned Vegetables rich in Antioxidants

  • Spinach – Spinach is rich in the antioxidant lutein, which is thought to help protect against cognitive decline, according to researchers from Tufts University.[7]
  • Brussels sprouts – Has Tryptophan which converts to Serotonin in the brain
  • Alfalfa sprouts
  • Cauliflower – Assists in cleansing white matter in brain
  • Beets – good source of naturally-occurring nitrates, which help improve blood flow to the brain
  • Lettuce – Helps increase blood flow to the brain and cleanse blood plague.[2]
  • Broccoli
  • Kale
  • Red bell pepper
  • Onion
  • Corn
  • Eggplant

2. Fruits rich in Antioxidants

  • Blueberries – Improve learning and motor skills
  • Prunes, raisins, blackberries, strawberries, raspberries, plums, oranges, red grapes and cherries[2]

3. Food rich in Omega-3 fatty acids

  • Cold water fish like Halibut, Mackerel, Salmon, Trout and Tuna Oily fish like Sardines, Herring
  • Fatty fish have been linked to lower risk of dementia, improved focus and memory.[9]

4. Nuts & Seeds rich in Vitamin-E/Antioxidants
Walnuts, hazelnuts, Brazil nuts, Pine nuts, Pecans, Filberts, Almonds, Cashews, Peanuts, Sunflower seeds, Sesame seeds, Flax seed, and unhydrogenated nut butters such as Peanut butter, Almond butter, Tahini[3]

5. Get enough Vitamin C and Zinc
Diets low in vitamin C and zinc may affect children's mental and physical development. Good sources of zinc include oysters, beef, crab, fortified breakfast cereals, beans, yogurt, cashews, chickpeas, oatmeal, almonds and peas. Foods rich in vitamin C include red peppers, oranges, grapefruit, kiwi, green peppers, broccoli, strawberries, Brussels sprouts, cantaloupe, cabbage, cauliflower, potato, tomatoes, spinach and green peas.[1]

6. Memory-Boosting Foods
Choline is a precursor to acetylcholine, a substance that helps stimulate the brain; a more stimulated brain is better able to make new connections, which is an important part of memory. Foods high in choline include eggs, liver, soybeans, peanuts, butter, potatoes, cauliflower, lentils, oats, Swiss chard, collard greens, sesame seeds and flax seeds. The substances anthocyanin and querecetin may help boos memory, according to a Harvard study; good sources include berries, cherries, black currants, eggplant, red, purple and black grapes, red onion, red apples, beets, onions, kale, leeks, cherry tomatoes, broccoli, blueberries and apricots.[1]

7. Water
Be sure to get enough to keep your body and brain hydrated. Dehydration can cause a headache now, and can lead to long-term neuronal damage sustained from elevated stress hormones. When a person becomes dehydrated, their brain tissue actually shrinks. And several studies have shown that dehydration can affect cognitive function.[6]

8. Whole grains – Oatmeal, whole-grain breads, and brown rice promote good blood flow to the organ system, which includes brain.[3]

9. Tea or Coffee - Modest amount of caffeine Boosts brain power by enhancing memory, focus, and mood. Green tea is beneficial as they are rich in Antioxidants.[3]  Aside from caffeine's brain boosting effects, coffee's antioxidant richness helps maintain brain health. And some research suggests that drinking coffee can actually stave off depression in women.[8]

10. Beans – It Stabilize glucose (blood sugar) levels. The brain is dependent on glucose for fuel and since it can't store the glucose, it relies on a steady stream of energy — which beans can provide.
Eg Lentils, Black beans.

11. Pomegranate juice – Offers potent antioxidant benefits which protect the brain from the damage of free radicals.[3]

12. Dark Chocolate – It has powerful antioxidant properties, contains several natural stimulants, including caffeine, which enhance focus and concentration, and stimulates the production of endorphins, which helps improve mood.[3]

13. Wheat Germ – It is a rich vegetarian source of choline — a nutrient that is involved in the body's production of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that boosts memory.

14. Moderate alcohol consumption raises levels of healthy high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Alcohol also lowers our cells' resistance to insulin, allowing it to lower blood sugar more effectively. Insulin resistance has been linked to dementia.[10]

15. Avocados – contributes to healthy blood flow and And healthy blood flow means a healthy brain. Avocados also lower blood pressure and as hypertension is a risk factor for the decline in cognitive abilities, a lower blood pressure should promote brain health[3]

16. Garlic – Garlic may help stave off some forms of brain cancer, according to research published in Cancer, the medical journal of the American Cancer Society. Investigators found that the organo-sulfur compounds in garlic actually worked to kill glioblastoma cells — a type of malignant tumor cell.

17. Vegetables rich in Betacarotene – such as carrots, sweet potatoes and spinach, have also been shown to improve the health of the brain.

Foods that affect Brain Activity

  • High blood sugar levels may take a toll on the brain [12]
  • Obesity-inducing junk food could also give you dementia through high blood pressure and cholesterol, which interrupt blood supply to the brain[14]
  • Low-carb diets could also be draining your brain [11]
  • Even small amounts of glucose or fructose can slow down brain and memory functions[13]

Some other useful tips

  • Research indicates that "Eating Breakfast" is beneficial for children's cognitive performance. [1]
  • A study by researchers from the Centre for Research in Environmental Epidemiology suggested that vitamin D consumption by mothers during pregnancy could lead to better brain health for their babies.[5]

[1] Diet for Healthy Brain Function in Children
[2] Adopt a Brain-Healthy Diet
[3]  Eat Smart for a Healthier Brain
[4] Seven ways to a healthy brain
[5] Baby's brain health may be linked to mother's vitamin D consumption, according to a new study
[6] Dehydration affects brain structure and function in healthy adolescents.
[7] Emerging Science: The Role of Lutein in Neural Health – From the Retina to the Brain
[8] Coffee Cuts Depression Risk In Women, New Study Shows
[9] Ask the Expert: Omega-3 Fatty Acids
[10] Boost your memory by eating right
[11] Certain foods may hurt, help the brain
[12] High Blood Sugar Levels Linked to Brain Shrinkage
[13] Sugar and high fructose diet slows brain and memory functions
[14] Junk food could also damage brain, says study


View Answer on Quora

Language Disorders in Teenagers or Adolescence

In early childhood, a therapist would evaluate whether the child is moving along through the levels of development appropriately. The main questions would be whether the child is building language and moving from level 1 through level 4. Once a child has moved into level 4 language development and evolves into adolescence the question turns towards development of advance language skills. In adolescence, it is important to evaluate lexicon and how it is developing to determine if they are reaching or at the end of the oral literate continuum.  The characteristics of literate lexicon would be inference skills to gather information from the context that accompanies it. This skill is important for unraveling the meaning of nouns for technical and curriculum purposes. Other skills they should possess at this stage are the use of verbs that involve metacognitive skills and metalinguistic skills. They should be using verbs that involve theory of mind and perspective, this eventually helping them to take on the perspective of others.  Other advanced language skills include ease of word retrieval, ability to produce definitions, generate alternative words from a single word given, produce figurative language and integrate complex ideas. Clinicians would look at the student’s ability to organize, predict, speculate, and hypothesize with their academic study subjects.  Lacking any of these skills could pose a great challenge for middle school and high school students.

A student’s ability to advance in science, mathematics, literature, history, and geography would likely suffer without these important skills. Their writings skills would suffer without the ability to gather information or unravel the meaning of words in more advance ways. Sadly, in the culture of middle and high school the ability to understand perspectives of others could manifest in their social skills. Lack of these skills would also hinder the creation of personal relationships. The often emotionally charged click group ruled environment of middle and high schools makes having any noticeable difference from the masses miserable at best. Generally, differences of any kind are not embraced and being singled out for therapy is often uncomfortable and met with resistance.  Therapy and tutoring can help give delayed students the extra help they need to develop these skills, but the way therapy is presented to the student is important. An unwilling student will have a difficult time making progress, or may even make it impossible.

Making therapy fun and exciting is important and having a social play on therapy could make the difference of success or failure. Group therapy with peers would likely help students to understand they are not alone with their delay. They could practice scenario acting, reading tasks that involve further discussion and problem solving together which will foster relationships. A small group where everyone understood the environment to be one that is safe and confidential would be the ideal situation. Many games could be created using themed scenarios for metalinguistic and metacognitive skills.